(1)Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.
(2)This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.
(3)This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.
(4)However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascinating and delightful aspects.
(5)New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.
(6)Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.
(7)Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements.
(8)It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.
(9)Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.
(10)When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.
(11)But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.
(12)The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang, first put forward in the 1920s, to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos.
(13)Astrophysicists working with ground-based detectors at the South Pole and balloon-borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report their findings soon.
(14)If the small hot spots look as expected, that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea, a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary universe theory.
(15)Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.
(16) While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.
(17) Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.
(18)During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.
(19) There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry.
(20) It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and internal criticism of sources, and to social science historians who equate their activity with specific techniques.
(21) Under modern conditions, this requires varying measures of centralized control and hence the help of specialized scientists such as economists and operational research experts. (22)Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the